The Association Between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in Mother During Pregnancy with Low Birth Weight (LBW) Infants

  • Rusnani binti Ab Latif Kubang Kerian Nursing College 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan., Malaysia


Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major contributing factor towards high infant mortality in developing countries. One of the most predominant causes of LBW is the mother's access to prenatal care; however exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (passive smoking) may have a modest adverse effect on birth weight.

Methodology: Two-hundred thirty postnatal mothers were participated as respondents in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Data was collected by interviewing the postnatal mothers. A One Way Analyses Of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-Square test were used.  The differences were evaluated significant at p < 0.05.

Results: There was highly significant association between mother’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or passive smoking with birth weight (F =15.200, p = 0.000). There is a significant association between the number of cigarettes per day father’s smoke with birth weight (F=4.970, p = 0.003). However, analysis by using Chi-Square shows that the exposure of smoke to other family members was not statistically significant (χ²= 1.68, p = 0 .431).

Conclusion: Therefore, the improved quality of antenatal care can reduce health complications with subsequent improvement in birth weight. On the other hand, early antenatal care is crucial to favorable pregnancy outcome.

Keywords: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), Pregnancy mothers, Low Birth Weight (LBW)


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Latif, R. (2018). The Association Between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in Mother During Pregnancy with Low Birth Weight (LBW) Infants. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research, 1(1), 15-21. Retrieved from