Influence of Oral Microbiome on Human Health: an Overview

  • Mitu De Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Gurudas College, Kolkata 54 & Head of Research and Academic Studies Unit (Hony), Autism Society West Bengal, Kolkata, India
  • Manisha Bhattacharya Clinical Psychologist, Autism Society West Bengal, (ASWB), Kolkata, India
  • Animita C. Saha Associate Professor of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  • Indrani Basu Director, Autism Society West Bengal, Kolkata, India
  • Sayak Ganguli Group Leader, Amplicon Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Palta, West Bengal, India
  • Santi Ranjan Dey Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, Rammohan College, Kolkata, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2769-9109

Abstract

The human microbiome can be considered a counterpart of the human genome. The genes in our microbiome outnumber the genes in the human genome by about 100 to 1Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have created a new field of research, called metagenomics. . Microbiome projects worldwide have been launched with the goal of understanding the roles that these symbionts play and their impacts on human health. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and their applications on human populations have led to the identification of a large catalog of rare and common variants. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has analysed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats so far. The richest area in terms of total numbers of microbes in the body is the human gut. The relationship between the oral microbiome and its host is dynamic. The oral microbiome is also considered a key cause of oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontal diseases, as well as many systemic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Metagenomics and metabolomics based reserach is providing a multidimensional picture of the microbiome community, revealing its genetic potential and metabolic activities. In this paper an overview is given on metagenomics and the human oral microbiome.

Keywords: Human Microbiome Project, Oral microbiome, Metagenomics

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De, M., Bhattacharya, M., Saha, A., Basu, I., Ganguli, S., & Dey, S. (2019). Influence of Oral Microbiome on Human Health: an Overview. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research, 2(1), 16-21. Retrieved from https://ijalsr.org/index.php/journal/article/view/46